[32], Katyusha-like MRLs were also allegedly used by the Rwandan Patriotic Front during its 1990 invasion of Rwanda, through the 1994 genocide. Russia’s present catalog of rocket artillery weapons is limited to the BM-21 Grad, the BM-27 Uragan, BM-30 Smerch, and the TOS-1A. RARAN coordinates the activities of scientists who carry out complex research and development on the creation, operation and use of modern weapons, military technology and special equipment. Multiple rocket launchers such as these deliver explosives to a target area more quickly than conventional artillery, but with lower accuracy and requiring a longer time to reload. [1], The first large-scale testing of the rocket launchers took place at the end of 1938, when 233 rounds of various types were used. (See link below for a summary of the Russian artillery units operating on the border of Ukraine or in its territory). [25] Soviet BM-13s were known to have been imported to China before the Sino-Soviet split and were operational in the People's Liberation Army. They were effective in battle, but translated into much anti-Tutsi sentiment in the local media. Russia can project long-range firepower via weapons such as the BM-30 Smerch multiple rocket launcher, with a range of 60 miles, or the SS-26 Iskander ballistic missile with a … Its bulbous warhead required it to be fired from a grounded frame, called the M-30 (single frame, four round; later double frame, 8 round), instead of a launch rail mounted on a truck. A special unit of the NKVD troops was raised to operate them. [3] In 1942, the team of scientists Leonid Shvarts, Moisei Komissarchik and engineer Yakov Shor received the Stalin prize for the development of the BM-8-48. It fires unguided and spin-stabilized 9M21 rockets. The rockets were employed by the Tanzania People's Defence Force in the Uganda-Tanzania War. The U.S. Army sneaked a pair of long-range rocket-launchers near Russia’s Black Sea outpost on Thursday, fired off a few rockets then hurried the launchers back to … [6] Katyusha is the Russian equivalent of Katie, an endearing diminutive form of the name Katherine: Yekaterina →Katya →Katyusha. The system is intended to defeat personnel, armored, and soft targets in concentration areas, artillery batteries, command posts and ammunition depots. [citation needed] Testing with various rockets was conducted through 1940, and the BM-13-16 with launch rails for sixteen rockets was authorized for production. [27][28][29][30] Most rockets fired at Israel from the Gaza Strip are of the simpler Qassam rocket type, but Hamas has also launched 122-mm Grad-type Katyusha rockets against several cities in Israel,[31] although they are not reported to have truck-mounted launchers. The truck-mounted Katyushas were installed on ZiS-6 6×4 trucks, as well as the two-axle ZiS-5 and ZiS-5V. Georgian government forces are reported to have used BM-21 Grad or similar rocket artillery in fighting in the 2008 South Ossetia war. Later these were also installed on GAZ-67 jeeps as the BM-8-8, and on the larger Studebaker trucks as the BM-8-48. The Russians field cannon and rocket artillery with significantly longer ranges than their U.S. counterparts. [34][35], Katyusha rockets were reportedly used by both Gaddafi Loyalists and anti-Gaddafi forces during the Libyan Civil War. Rocket artillery is a type of artillery equipped with rocket launchers instead of conventional … The Academy was established on April 5, 1994 by a decree of the RF President "in order to revive the traditions of Russian … Rachel Bayvel Celebrates the Soviet Jews Who Produced Weapons for Allied Victory, Inzhenerno-tekhnicheskaya deyatel’nost’ yevreyev v SSSR, https://mail.google.com/mail/u/0/#inbox/FMfcgxwKjnVGfhmvvsflvdjnpwWpwhQf?projector=1&messagePartId=0.1, "Revisiting the Tanzania-Uganda war that toppled Amin", "Hizballah's Rocket Campaign Against Northern Israel: A Preliminary Report", "Iranian made rocket strikes Ashkelon – Ashkelon", Charlie Wilson's War: The Extraordinary Story of the Largest Covert Operation in History, "The World: Yemen says seized Iranian ship had weapons", "Katyusha rocket crashes into Baghdad Green Zone; no casualties", "Multiple rockets fall in Baghdad, air base", "Rockets fall near U.S. Embassy, no casualties, police sources", "Two Rockets Fall Inside Iraqi Air Base Housing U.S. Manufacturer Lockheed Martin completed final test … Soviet engineers also mounted single Katyusha rockets on lengths of railway track to serve in urban combat. [3] By the end of 1942, 3,237 Katyusha launchers of all types had been built, and by the end of the war total production reached about 10,000.[10]. [20], By the end of 1942, 57 regiments were in service—together with the smaller independent battalions, this was the equivalent of 216 batteries: 21% BM-8 light launchers, 56% BM-13, and 23% M-30 heavy launchers. They were called by code names such as Kostikov guns, after the head of the RNII, the Reaction-Engine Scientific Research Institute, and finally classed as Guards Mortars. Backpack (portable variant, so called "mountain Katyusha"), This page was last edited on 24 December 2020, at 21:08. BM-31-12 is a vehicle which fires M-31 missiles and has 12 launch tubes. The development of the Katyusha began as early as 1938 itself, when the Jet Propulsion Research Institute (RNII) in Leningrad was authorized to develop an MLRS. According to two Iraqi police sources and an official Iraqi military statement, one Katyusha rocket landed in the Green Zone in Celebration Square near the U.S. Embassy and another landed in the nearby Jadriya neighborhood. [3] The name BM-13 was only allowed into secret documents in 1942, and remained classified until after the war. [39][40][41], BM-13 Katyusha multiple rocket launcher, based on a, CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, "История Великой Отечественной войны" в 6 томах (History of Great Patriotic War), vol. [10], On August 8, 1941, Stalin ordered the formation of eight special Guards mortar regiments under the direct control of the Reserve of the Supreme High Command (RVGK). With an efficient crew, the launchers could redeploy to a new location immediately after firing, denying the enemy the opportunity for counterbattery fire. The MSTA-S, Gvozdika, and Nona self-propelled artillery systems, plus the MSTA-B and PAT-B, which are towed, are an important … These went on to form large hybrid batteries of mobile launching systems that included indigenous Soviet trucks and even artillery tractors. A battery of BM-13-16 launchers included four firing vehicles, two reload trucks and two technical support trucks, with each firing vehicle having a crew of six. No casualties were reported. In June 1938, the Soviet Reaction-Engine Scientific Research Institute (RNII) in Moscow was authorized by the Main Artillery Directorate (GAU) to develop a multiple rocket launcher for the RS-132 aircraft rocket (RS for Reaktivnyy Snaryad, 'rocket-powered shell'). boyevaya mashina), 'combat vehicle' for M-13 rockets). A salvo of rockets could completely straddle a target at a range of 5,500 metres (3.4 mi). The use of rockets as some form of artillery dates back to medieval China where devices such as fire arrows were used (albeit mostly as a psychological weapon). Existing Army tube artillery can generally fire at … If playback doesn't begin shortly, try restarting your device. [9] I. Gvay led a design team in Chelyabinsk, Russia, which built several prototype launchers firing the modified 132 mm M-132 rockets over the sides of ZiS-5 trucks. A few were also tried on KV tank chassis as the KV-1K, but this was a needless waste of heavy armour. Pages 116. Modern rocket artillery was first employed during World War II, in the form of the German Nebelwerfer family of rocket ordnance designs, Soviet Katyusha-series and numerous other systems employed on a smaller scale by the Western allies and Japan. Short names such as BM-8 or BM-13 were used too. Katyusha batteries were often massed in very large numbers to create a shock effect on enemy forces. , The PHL-03, for example, has been delivered to Pakistan, Belarus is touting as a homegrown innovation, ← The F-35 May Not Be So Special After All, The Syrian Civil War Did Wipe Out The Syrian Arab Army →. They were also built in Czechoslovakia,[24] the People's Republic of China, North Korea, and Iran. In 1944 it became the basis for the BM-31-12 truck-mounted launcher.[3]. [4], Because they were marked with the letter K (for Voronezh Komintern Factory),[4][5] Red Army troops adopted a nickname from Mikhail Isakovsky's popular wartime song, "Katyusha", about a girl longing for her absent beloved, who has gone away on military service. Katyusha rocket launchers, which were invented in Voronezh, were mounted on many platforms during World War II, including on trucks, artillery tractors, tanks, and armoured trains, as well as on naval and riverine vessels as assault support weapons. Advances in artillery munitions have been applied to some Katyusha-type multiple launch rocket systems, including bomblet submunitions, remotely deployed land mines, and chemical warheads. 2, p. 66, chapter by field-marshal Andrey Eremenko, Andrey Sapronov «Россия» newspaper No. These proved unstable, and V.N. [12][13], Based on the M-13, the M-30 rocket was developed in 1942. The weapon is less accurate than conventional artillery guns, but is extremely effective in saturation bombardment, and was particularly feared by German soldiers. [3] On July 14, 1941, an experimental artillery battery of seven launchers was first used in battle at Rudnya in Smolensk Oblast of Russia, under the command of Captain Ivan Flyorov, destroying a concentration of German troops with tanks, armored vehicles and trucks at the marketplace, causing massive German Army casualties and its retreat from the town in panic,[17] see also in articles by a Russian military historian Andrey Sapronov,[18][19] an eye witness of the maiden launches. A battery's complement was standardized at four launchers. All of them had the same name: BM-8-24. The use of medieval rocket artillery was picked up by the invading Mongols and spread to the Ottoman Turks who in turn used them on the European battlefield. Although this type of weapon has existed since the 15th century (Leonardo da Vinci having perfected a similar machine), the design of the Katyusha may have been influenced by Giuseppe Fieschi's Machine infernale - Fieschi was honored in a religious service at a Moscow church at the prompting of Soviet General Kotskov, the inventor of the Katyusha rocket launcher. This mobility gave the Katyusha, and other self-propelled artillery, another advantage: being able to deliver a large blow all at once, and then move before being located and attacked with counter-battery fire. In August 1939, the result was the BM-13 (BM stands for боевая машина (translit. Some allege that the CIA bought Katyushas from the Egyptian military and supplied them to the Mujahideen (via Pakistan's ISI) during the Soviet Afghan war. In modern use, the rockets are often guided by an internal guiding system or GPS in order to maintain accuracy. It was designed in the early 1980s and entered service in the Soviet Army in 1989. The 9M21 rockets are mounted on a wheeled 9P113 transporter erector launcher (TEL) based on the ZIL-135 8x8 army truck. Weapons of this type are known by the same name in Denmark (Danish: Stalinorgel), Finland (Finnish: Stalinin urut), France (French: orgue de Staline), Norway (Norwegian: Stalinorgel), the Netherlands and Belgium (Dutch: Stalinorgel), Hungary (Hungarian: Sztálinorgona), Spain and other Spanish-speaking countries (Spanish: Órganos de Stalin) as well as in Sweden (Swedish: Stalinorgel). About 95% of these were 122 mm (4.8 in) Syrian-manufactured M-21OF type artillery rockets which carried warheads up to 30 kg (66 lb) and had a range of 20 km, perhaps up to 30 km (19 mi). The design was relatively simple, consisting of racks of parallel rails on which rockets were mounted, with a folding frame to raise the rails to launch position. This has a very uniqu… One of the more notable BM-13 developments became the long range BM-13-DD. From Syria to the Crimea, one weapon has accompanied Russia’s ground forces both overseas and to Russia’s so-called “near abroad”: artillery … The success and economy of multiple rocket launchers (MRL) have led them to continue to be developed. The cross-country performance of the Studebaker US6 2½-ton 6x6 truck was so good that it became the GAU's standard mounting in 1943, designated BM-13N (normalizovanniy, 'standardized'), and more than 1,800 of this model were manufactured by the end of World War II. Number of launch rails/tubes is absent here. Tanzanian forces called them Baba Mtakatifu (Kiswahili for "Holy Father") while the Ugandans called them Saba Saba.[26]. Starting in 1942, they were also mounted on various British, Canadian and U.S. Lend-Lease trucks, in which case they were sometimes referred to as BM-13S. For 2020, Russia is ranked 2 of 138 out of the countries considered for the annual GFP review.It holds a PwrIndx* rating of 0.0681 (0.0000 considered 'perfect'). Stepan Poltorak, Ukraine’s defense minister, alleged that Russia has sent 1,150 artillery pieces into Eastern Ukraine including 450 multiple-rocket launchers. [2], Initially, concerns for secrecy kept the military designation of the Katyushas from being known by the soldiers who operated them. Russian rocket artillery.The author of the book is Mikhail Sonkin.The book was printed in 1949, in Moscow by the Military Publishing House of the USSR Armed Forces.The first edition of this book.Hardcover. [23], Katyusha-like launchers were exported to Afghanistan, Angola, Czechoslovakia, Egypt, East Germany, Hungary, Iran, Iraq, Mongolia, North Korea, Poland, Syria, Yemen and Vietnam. In July, a battalion of BM-13s was added to the establishment of a tank corps. Once isolated, Russian forces and partisans began a slow, concentric squeeze on the Ukrainians controlling the airport, much of which consisted of incessant artillery and rocket bombardment. They have also been used in the Afghanistan and Iraq insurgencies. Russian artillery is getting a makeover. [11] After World War II, BM-13s were based on Soviet-built ZiS-151 trucks. The multiple rocket launchers were top secret in the beginning of World War II. Following the success, the Red Army organized new Guards mortar batteries for the support of infantry divisions. Quick video on the Katyusha Rocket Launcher, one of the most iconic weapons of the Second World WarFOR EDUCATIONAL PURPOSES As … Soviet World War II rocket systems were named according to standard templates which are the following: In particular, BM-8-16 is a vehicle which fires M-8 missiles and has 16 rails. [20], In June 1942 heavy Guards mortar battalions were formed around the new M-30 static rocket launch frames, consisting of 96 launchers in three batteries. Russia's Tornado-S multiple launch rocket system (MLRS) will replace the Cold War-era Smerch and Uragan systems within the next seven years. To their credit, all have combat records. [22] During the Cold War, the Soviet Union fielded several models of Katyusha-like MRL, notably the BM-21 Grad launchers somewhat inspired by the earlier weapon, and the larger BM-27 Uragan. [citation needed]. By the end of 1941, there were eight regiments, 35 independent battalions, and two independent batteries in service, fielding a total of 554 launchers. The Katyusha was inexpensive and could be manufactured in light industrial installations which did not have the heavy equipment to build conventional artillery gun barrels. During the 2006 Lebanon War, Hezbollah fired between 3,970 and 4,228 rockets, from light truck-mounts and single-rail man-portable launchers. The presence of a unit from the 439th Guards Rocket Artillery Brigade was first reported in September, 2014. They remained under NKVD control until German Nebelwerfer rocket launchers became common later in the war. Fire arrows were also used in multiple launch systems and transported via carts. [6], After their success in the first month of the war, mass production was ordered and the development of other models proceeded. Today, the nickname is also applied to newer truck-mounted post-Soviet – in addition to non-Soviet – multiple rocket launchers, notably the common BM-21 Grad and its derivatives. While the U.S. Army remains fixed on 155 mm cannon artillery with a maximum range upward of 22 kilometers, the Russian army has begun reactivating its heavy artillery forces, beginning with its 2S7 Pion, mounting an impressive 203 mm round with a maximum range of 37.5 km. Although Katyusha originally referred to the mobile launcher, today the rockets are often referred to as Katyushas. The Katyushas of World War II, the first self-propelled artillery mass-produced by the Soviet Union,[1] were usually mounted on ordinary trucks. Besides the TR-107 and TR-122 rocket launchers, with both derived from Chinese munition types, Turkey’s Roketsan boasts the T-300 that can bombard targets 100 km away. Each truck had 14 to 48 launchers. As their grip grew tighter, Russian and partisan forces entered and cleared terminals, hangers, and other facilities in which Ukrainian forces were located. The Russian Academy of Rocket and Artillery Sciences is a non-profit scientific organization of the Russian Federation. Description. The Katyusha multiple rocket launcher (Russian: Катю́ша, IPA: [kɐˈtʲuʂə] (listen)) is a type of rocket artillery first built and fielded by the Soviet Union in World War II. [37], On May 19, 2019, a Katyusha rocket was fired inside the Green Zone in Baghdad, Iraq, landing less than a mile from the US Embassy near the statue of the Unknown Soldier. Only forty launchers were built before Germany invaded the Soviet Union in June 1941. [38], On January 4, 2020, four Katyusha rockets were fired in the Baghdad area. On Nov. 19, Russia celebrated the Day of Missile Forces and Artillery, honoring one branch of its army.Today, the Grad, Uragan, Smerch, and Tornado multiple-launch rocket systems (MLRS) are their main attack weapons that ensure superiority on the battlefield. Soviet engineers also mounted single Katyusha rockets on lengths of railway track to serve in urban combat. They are fragile compared to artillery guns, but are inexpensive, easy to produce, and usable on any chassis. In the video, Saharawi troops are seen loading a BM-21 “Grad” multiple launch rocket system (MLRS), a wheeled vehicle built by the Soviet Union that remains in use in dozens of militaries around the globe. The BM-30 Smerch, 9K58 Smerch or 9A52-2 Smerch-M is a Soviet heavy multiple rocket launcher. In recent history, they have been used by Russian forces during the First and Second Chechen Wars and by Armenian and Azerbaijani forces during the First Nagorno-Karabakh War. Katyusha weapons of World War II included the BM-13 launcher, light BM-8, and heavy BM-31. [21] In 1944, the BM-31 was used in motorized heavy Guards mortar battalions of 48 launchers. The M-13 rocket of the BM-13 system was 80 cm (2 ft 7 in) long, 13.2 cm (5.2 in) in diameter and weighed 42 kg (93 lb). [36], In February 2013, the Defence Ministry of Yemen reported seizing an Iranian ship, and that the ship's cargo included (among its other weapons) Katyusha rockets. This year's May Day parade showcased the newest self-propelled guns in the Russian arsenal, the 2S35 Koalitsiya-SV. A battery of four BM-13 launchers could fire a salvo in 7–10 seconds that delivered 4.35 tons of high explosives over a 400,000-square-metre (4,300,000 sq ft) impact zone,[3] making its power roughly equivalent to that of 72 conventional artillery guns. This emphasis was evident at the recent Victory Parade in Moscow and at the Army Forum 2020 defense expo taking place in Kubinka this week. In Iraq, according to Associated Press and Agence France-Presse reports, Katyusha-like rockets were fired at the Green Zone late March 2008. BM-30 Smerch 9K58, Tornado-G, TOS1-A, BM-27 Uragan. The M-8 and M-13 rocket could also be fitted with smoke warheads, although this was not common. In 1941, a small number of BM-13 launchers were mounted on STZ-5 artillery tractors. The Russian defense establishment's perception of the place of artillery - in general, and rocket Artillery - in particular, has undergone a significant advancement over the past decade, placing these systems at a central place on the ground battlefield. Proper Katyushas (BM-13s) also saw action in the Korean War, used by the Chinese People's Volunteer Army against the South and United Nations forces. Do not miss the latest updates on Russian rocket artillery news. By the end of the war, the equivalent of 518 batteries were in service.[20]. 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