Disclaimer Copyright, History Discussion - Discuss Anything About History, Political Conditions During the Mughal Empire | Indian History, Decline and Disintegration of the Mughals in India, Disintegration and Fall of the Mughal Empire | Indian History, Forts in India: 5 Magnificent Ancient Forts in India, Mosques in India: 15 Ancient Mosques in India. The attempts to reform the administration proved futile and disgusted with the inability and fickle mindedness of the emperor the Nizam chose to pursue his own ambitions. In the year 1719, six emperors were there to reign Mughal Capital.This instability led to a territorial loss of the Mughal Empire. Before publishing your Article on this site, please read the following pages: 1. The economic stability of the empire was ruined because of the constant wars. This weakened the Mughal Empire, especially after Aurangzeb. In 1739 it was defeated by the army of the Persian shah, Nadir Shah (1688-1747). The proud Mughal Empire which had ruled the north for two centuries was declining and soon the emperor of Delhi became a pensioner for the British. That sealed the destiny of the Empire. Let us view the causes that hastened the fall of the Mughal Empire after Aurangzeb. He gave his office in 1724 and proceeded to the south and found the state of Hyderabad. So, it was impossible to govern the complete Mughal Empire from one center with no or limited means of transportation and communication. The emperor, with a view to buy peace and save Delhi from devastation, ceded Punjab and Multan to Abdali. However the inglorious reign of Jahandar Shah soon came to an end in 1713 when he was defeated by his nephew Farrukh Siyar at Agra. His empire was the world's largest economy, valued 25% of world's GDP. But Muhammad Shah was not a good ruler. Azam turned to Ahmednagar and proclaimed himself emperor. At the time of his father’s death he was in Bihar. He brought the entire area to the west of the Sutlej under his control. 1593– whole Sind conquered. Ghulam Qadir was defeated and executed by Mahadji Sindhia at Meerut in 1789 and Shah Alam II was reinstated as Sindhia’s pensioner. Nobles resorted to conspiracies and made the Mughal power weak and vulnerable. Privacy Policy He adopted a more tolerant attitude towards the Hindus. The two brothers soon acquired dominant control over the affairs of the state. In fact, the decline began during the last days of Aurangzeb. The Maratha sardars were still confined to the south and the Rajput’s were loyal to the Mughals. Kam Baksh too declared himself the sovereign ruler and conquered important places as Gulbarga and Hyderabad. Emperor Muhammad Shah was taken prisoner and Nadir Shah marched on to Delhi. Muhi-ul-Milat, the grandson of KamBaksh was placed on the throne as Shah Jahan III by Imad-ul- Mulk. They abolished the jizyah as well as the pilgrimage tax at many places. Muazzam defeated both Azam at Jajau in 1707 and Kam Baksh near Hyderabad in 1708. 1586– after the death of Muhammad Hakim (half brother of Akbar), Kabul annexed to Mughal Empire. Bahadur Shah II was deported to Rangoon where he died in 1862. after the Indian Rebellion against the British in 1857. But Aurangzeb was a fanatic and could not tolerate the non-Muslims. He carried away with him the famous Koh-i-Noor diamond and the jewel studded Peacock throne of Shahjahan. Marathas thus remained dissatisfied. This website includes study notes, research papers, essays, articles and other allied information submitted by visitors like YOU. However, since it was a very successful Empire, it still took 150 more years for its definite end. PreserveArticles.com is a free service that lets you to preserve your original articles for eternity. He was a clever man and advocated a friendly policy towards the Rajput’s, Marathas and the Hindu chieftains not only to strengthen his own position but to ensure the survival of the empire. The financial position of the empire was also dwindling as the rebellious elements refused to pay the land tax. Nadir Shah’s invasion inflicted a heavy damage on the Mughal Empire and its dwindling image suffered a severe blow. After his death, his disciple Banda Bahadur carried on his his struggle against the Mughals. 5. Mughal India was the world leader in manufacturing, producing about 25% of the worl… He was captured and tried by the British. The two armies met at Karnal in 1739 and the Mughals suffered a crushing defeat at the hands of Nadir Shah. In fact, the decline began during the last days of Aurangzeb. The disunity amongst the nobles too proved an added advantage for the invaders. Most of them have been addicted to wine and women. Our mission is to liberate knowledge. The Indian economy was large and prosperous under the Mughal Empire. But after the death of the Guru, the Sikhs once again raised a revolt under the leadership of Banda Bahadur. Aurangzeb, thus “himself gave a green signal to the forces of decay” and so after his death the mighty empire disintegrated into smaller states. Nor was it one of the major reasons. Akbar sent Raja Ram Mohan Roy to England to seek a raise in pension. His first Wazir after the fall of the Sayyid brothers was Muhammad Amin Khan. They first obtained a freeman to trade with India, but gradually began interfering in Indian politics and gradually set up a British empire in India that lasted for 200 years. Often they proved to be disloyal. This history is seen to conclude with the achievement of independence in 1947. So, the Mughal Empire collapsed under its own weight. This led to increased indiscipline amongst the soldiers. He abolished the jizyah; gave the title of Mirza Raja Sawai to Jai Singh of Amber and appointed him the governor of Malwa. Ahmad Shah Abdali was defeated at Manpur by Ahmad Shah, the Mughal heir-apparent and Mir Mannu, the son of the deceased wazir Qamruddin. But during the eighteenth century, the Rajputs became very weak due to the rise of the Sikhs, Jats and the Marathas. Being a fanatic Sunni Muslim, he could not tolerate even the Shias. For more than a decade, Aurangzeb appeared to be in full control. He also did not recognize Shahu as the rightful Maratha king thus keeping the fight for supremacy going between Tara Bai and Shahu. Our mission is to provide an online platform to help students to discuss anything and everything about history. Perhaps most worryingly for the Mughal emperor, he relied heavily on Rajput warriors, who by this time formed the backbone of his southern army and were faithful Hindus. There were many causes for the downfall of this great dynasty. The efforts made by the Sayyid brothers did not yield great results because they were constantly faced with rival factions and conspiracies in the court. Aurangzeb was born on 3 November 1618, in Dahod, Gujarat.He was the third son and sixth child of Shah Jahan and Mumtaz Mahal. His policy of religious persecution of the Hindus, who formed the bulk of the population of the country, hastened the fall of his dynasty. Copyright. David Ochterlony became the first resident. Even after the fall of Aurangzeb, they failed to rise to the occasion and grab power. But he also introduced the evil practice of revenue – farming or Ijarah whereby the government established contact with the revenue farmers and middlemen who paid the government a fixed amount while they were free to collect whatever they could from the peasant. The most important ruler of this period was Sawai Raja Jai Singh of Jaipur who built the Pink city and also the astronomical observatories. The already declining Mughal Empire received another fatal blow when the Persian monarch, Nadir Shah invaded India in 1738-39. 1594– Kandhar conquered from Persia. The Sayyid brothers were convinced that if the real authority were in their hands the empire would be safeguarded from perishing. As successors Sayyid the brothers quickly raised two young princes, Rafi-ud-Darajat and Rafi-ud- Daula (Shah Jahan II) who died within months. His execution of the Sikh guru and his enmity with the Marathas forced them to raise arms against him. He granted them the sardeshmukhi of the Deccan but not the chauth. PreserveArticles.com is an online article publishing site that helps you to submit your knowledge so that it may be preserved for eternity. After his death, the power of the Mughal Empire declined quickly. Some of the wars did not add even an inch to the Mughal Empire. They were branded as anti-Islamic for their policies. Finally Farrukh was deposed and killed in 1719. Dismember­ment of the empire began and the Marathas who were the most formidable of … After the death of every emperor, there ensued a bloody war of succession amongst his sons. He imposed jazia and forbade the celebration of Hindu festivals. We will also be discussing about the various battles like the third Panipat battle, Buxar battle, Pallasey, etc. Ahmad Shah was blinded and deposed by this new wazir. empire in India that held power for roughly 200 years between the early 16th and early. 1601– Asirgargh proved to be the last conquest of Akbar’s life. 2. However, Banda was finally captured and put to death in 1715 during the reign of Farukh Siyar. After the death of Shah Alam II, his son succeeded as Akbar Shah II. In order to maintain harmony, they advocated a policy of associating Hindu chiefs and nobles with Muslim nobles. The sceptre of such a vast empire was the bow of Ulysses and particularly when the rot had already been too deep, it … The invasions of Nadir Shah and Ahmad Shah Abdali proved fatal for the Mughal Empire. No. In their struggle against Farrukh Siyar, the Sayyid brothers sided with the Rajput’s and the Marathas. Ajit Singh of Marwar and Jai Singh of Amber were won over by giving them high positions in the administration. Most of them were addicted to wine and women. That sealed the fate of the Empire. Content Guidelines 2. Therefore, all proved worthless rulers. The successors of Aurangzeb were both weak and incompetent. After the fall of the Sayyid brothers Muhammad Shah had a long reign (1719-48) to save the empire. Privacy Policy3. They too turned against him. The other reason was that the size of the Mughal empire was very wide. The Mughal army was never able to completely quash Hindu resistance in the Deccan, and the Sikhs of northern Punjab rose up against Aurangzeb repeatedly throughout his reign. Guru Gobind Singh, the tenth Sikh guru, had organized the Sikhs into a military force. It was not the main reason. This ended the rule of the Sayyid brothers in the Mughal Empire. Aurangzeb died on the march,1707. In June 1626, after an unsuccessful rebellion by his father, Aurangzeb and his brother Dara Shukoh were kept as hostages under their grandparents' (Nur Jahan and Jahangir) Lahore court. The Sayyid brothers followed a policy of religious tolerance. Humayun’s officer Bairam Khan crowned 13 … The Marathas: With the burial of Aurangzeb Alamgir was also buried the glory and prestige of the Mughal Empire. To have better control over Marwar and Amber he forced Ajit Singh of Marwar to submit to the Mughal authority. He made attempts to garrison Amber and replace Jai Singh with his younger brother Vijay Singh. Jahandar Shah (1712-13) was suc­cessful in the war than the others. Nadir Shah was attracted to India by her fabulous wealth for which she was famous. After Aurangzeb, no Mughal emperor rightly deserved to be an emperor. Zulfikar Khan was soon executed by the orders of the new emperor. He pacified Churaman Jat and Chhatrasal Bundela but continued a strict policy towards the Sikhs. Welcome to HistoryDiscussion.net! The Mughal Empire was a state that existed on the Indian subcontinent from 1526 to 1858. The Moghuls after Aurangzeb: 18th century: When the Moghul emperor Aurangzeb is in his eighties, and the empire in disarray, an Italian living in India (Niccolao Manucci) Predicts appalling bloodshed on the old man's death, worse even than that which disfigured the start of Aurangzeb… He was learned, dignified and tried to reverse some of the narrow-minded policies and measures adopted by Aurangzeb. Finally Roshan Akhtar, the son of Jahan Shah was placed on the throne under the title of Muhammad Shah. He was also known as Shah Alam I. But instead of supporting Nizam, the emperor suspected his own ministers. In Deccan, only Raja Ali Khan of Khandesh accept Mughal suzerainty. Wars of Succession: The Mughals did not follow any law of succession like the law of primogeniture. After Aurangzeb, no Mughal emperor rightly deserved to be an emperor. Image source; globalsecurity.org/military/world/india/images/map-1600.jpg. Following are the reasons that made the Mughal Empire fall: The Challenges of The Empire: He was the last great and powerful ruler of the Mughal dynasty. The bankrupt Persian Empire found an easy prey in the weak Mughal rule with loose defences on the north-west frontier and used the golden opportunity. The British took control of this area in 1803. Here we will read about the Later Mughals after Aurangzeb death- Modern Indian History. We have read that during the reign of Shahjahan, the war of succession started. The relations between Alamgir II and Wazir Imad-ul-Mulk were not satisfactory and the latter got him murdered in 1759. Causes of the decline of the Mughal Empire: 1. After Aurangzeb died in 1707, the empire started a slow and steady decline in actual power, although it maintained all the trappings of power in the Indian subcontinent for another 150 years. Khafi Khan called him Shah-i-Bekhabar (Headless King). The Mughal Empire was vast and extensive in the beginning of the eighteenth century. But the invasions of Nadir Shah and Ahmad Shah Abdali gave the Sikhs a fresh opportunity to once again challenge the authority of the Mughals. They were given the office of the wazir and mirbakshi respectively. They did not like a king who was so much against their ways. The later Mughals spent more time in their harems and in pleasure and soon lost control of the states. The invasion affected the impe­rial finances and the economic life of the people adversely. Zulfikar Khan tried to improve the finances of the empire by checking the reckless growth of jagirs and offices and forced the mansabdarsio maintain their official quota of troops. Aurangzeb grew the Mughal empire to its greatest extent, adding four new provinces that collectively constituted more than one-quarter of the Mughal kingdom. Now they became direct aspirants to the throne and began using the princes as pawns to capture authoritarian positions. However the struggle for power between the emperor and the Sayyid brothers increased and the efforts of the emperor to overthrow the brothers failed repeatedly. Under Ranjit Singh, the Sikhs power reached the zenith of its glory, but his death was followed by an internal struggle for power. The death of emperor Muhammad Shah in 1748 saw the beginning of bitter struggles among power hungry nobles of Turani and Irani factions. The Mughal rule was still held in high esteem by the people. The end of the Mughal empire (1707 – 1858) Most of Mughal emperors after Aurangzeb had no greatness reigning for less than 10 years. The other main reason was the weak Successors of Aurangzeb. He quickly abandoned the policies of Aurangzeb and adopted a liberal attitude towards the Hindus. Disclaimer He was the most pleasure-loving ruler of loose morals and is therefore called Muhammad Shah ‘Rangila’. In another war of succession following Bahadur Shah’s death, his four sons, Jahandar Shah, Rafi-us-Shan, Azim-us-Shan and Jahan Shah became involved. Imad ul Mulk ousted the Wazir Safdar Jang and became the wazir. Finally, the foreign invasions completely shattered the economy. The military and financial position of the empire during this period became worst to the extent that the emperor’s household troops carried off the articles from the houses of the wazirs and nobles and sold them into the market. In the last video, we studied about the rule of Akbar, Jahangir and Shah Jahan. In this way, Aurangzeb defeated all his three brothers and got the throne of the Mughal Empire.Though he got the throne after a civil war with his own brothers.But the financial condition of the Mughal Empire was not good at that time. After the death of Muḥammad Shah in 1748, the Marathas overran almost all of northern India. At the height of its power at the end of the 17th century, the Mughal Empire spanned almost the entire subcontinent and parts of present-day Afghanistan. New powers such as the Sikhs, Jats and Marathas came onto the scene. Previously, the contest for power was between the royal princes; the nobles had merely backed and sided with them. This oppressed the peasantry to a great extent. Content Guidelines Gradually they broke off from the Mughal domination and established their own independent states. Ajit Singh of Marwar was given the title of Maharaja and appointed the governor of Gujarat. Although these misls could not unite for a long time, they carried on their struggle with each other’s cooperation. Aurangzeb's policies towards the decline of Mughal empire • Aurangzeb’s religious policy was largely responsible for the downfall of the Mughal Empire. By the end of the eighteenth century, Ranjii Singh, however, brought them together and founded a Sikh kingdom. The Mughals did not follow any definite law of succession. TOS The Mughal Empire was vast and extensive in the beginning of the eighteenth century. The hostile nobles united themselves under the leadership of Nizam-ul-Mulk of the Deccan. Now they could not even go to the battlefield without their train of attendants and women. Notes on the movements of the Marathas and Sikhs against the Mughal power. The administrator of Mughal Kingdom support and grow this dynasty. These misls were twelve in number and each one had a leader. Aurangzeb was largely responsible for the downfall of the empire. All the articles you read in this site are contributed by users like you, with a single vision to liberate knowledge. His excessive obsession with the Deccan also destroyed the Mughal army, the treasury and also adversely affected his health. There were many causes for the downfall of this great dynasty. His three sons Bahadur Shah I, Muhammad Azam Shah, and Muhammad Kam Bakhsh fought each other for the throne. Let us view the causes that hastened the fall of the Mughal Empire after Aurangzeb. His successor Ahmad Shah born of Udham Bai, a public dancing girl, ascended the throne but was unable to cope with the disintegrating forces. Alliance was made with Churaman Jat and later placated Shahu by granting him Shivaji’s swarajya and the right to collect the chauth and sardeshmukhi in six provinces of the Deccan. This created anarchy. The Mughals suffered a bit in Assam and Koch Bihar, but they gainfully invaded Arakanese lands in… Bahadur Shah made reconciliation with Guru Gobind Singh and granted him high mansab. That was however recovered in 1712 by the Sikhs. Each one, used nobles and members of the royal family to get the throne thereby dividing the nobles who fought for their self-interest only. He died in 1712.Henceforth a new element entered Mughal politics and the war of succession. The royal patronage that they received during the days of Akbar was now lost. Mughal emperor Aurangzeb died in 1707 after a 49-year reign without officially declaring a crown prince. Apart from later Mughal Emperors, we will be talking about Nadir shah, Abdali & Sayyid Brothers. The death of Aurangzeb is believed to have marked the beginning of the modern period. There was however a deterioration in the field of administration in his reign because he lavishly granted jagirs and promotions. What are the four causes of the fall of the Mughal Empire? What were the main Causes of the Decline of the Mughal Empire in India? The successors of Aurangzeb proved incapable and degenerate. Farrukh Siyar came to power with the help of Sayyid brothers, Abdullah Khan and Hussain Ali Khan Barha – the kingmakers. It is rather surprising how the fragment of the Empire continued till 1857. Farrukh was himself inca­pable of ruling and was easily influenced by the others. But by the close of the century it had shrunk to a few kilometres around Delhi. Bahadur Shah made peace with Chhatrasal, the Bundela chief and the Jat chief Churaman who joined him in the campaign against Banda Bahadur. He was allowed to retain the imperial title. The Mughal Empire was one of the largest and most influential polities in Indian, and indeed world, history - dominating the subcontinent throughout the early modern period. The successors of Aurangzeb proved incapable and degenerate. Ahmad Shah Abdali, the successor of Nadir Shah invaded the kingdom for the first time during Muhammad Shah’s reign in 1748. Azam Shah declared himself successor to the throne, but was defeated in battle by Bahadur Shah. During the Mughal era, the gross domestic product (GDP) of India in 1600 was estimated at about 22% of the world economy, the second largest in the world, behind only Ming China but larger than Europe. Ghulam Qadir (grandson of Najib and son of Zabita Khan Rohilla) occupied Delhi in 1788, blinded Shah Alam II and deposed him. He re-imposed the hated jiziya on the Hindus. Yet he might have overextended imperial resources, positioning the Mughal empire to collapse after his death. An excess of wealth and luxury made the Mughal army lazy, corrupt and inefficient. The wars of succession became extremely fierce and destructive during the 18thcentury and resulted in great loss of life and property. Ultimately in January 1772, Shah Alam II was reinstated at Delhi by the Marathas. In 1720, Hussain Ali was killed by the rebellious nobles and Abdullah Khan died in 1722 after he was defeated at Agra. He followed a conciliatory policy towards the Rajput’s and Marathas but a strict policy towards the Sikhs. 3. Very few people had anything bad to say about her and much of what we know comes from Jahanara’s own writings. After the death of Akbar II, Bahadur Shah II became the Emperor. By the mid-1800s the Mughal Empire had lost all of its territory to its rivals and to the British. He plundered the royal treasury at his, own pleasure and carried back the immense wealth from India. The Rajputs were strong military-like warriors but they had a major drawback in that they never organized themselves into a single power. Shahu, son of Shambhaji who was in Mughal captivity was released in 1707. He thus lost the friendship and loyality of the Rajputs. Bahadur Shah I (1707-12) was the first and the last of the later Mughal rulers to exercise real authority. After the dethronement of Ahmad Shah, Imad-ul-Mulk raised Azizuddin, Jahandar Shah’s son on the throne who styled himself after Aurangzeb as Alamgir II. 4. His predecessors did a lot to win over the loyalties of their subjects, particularly the Rajputs and the Hindus. TOS4. Although the Government did not get much by this method, the people were ruined. Mughal rule was reduced to only a small area around Delhi. Indian History, Medieval Period, Empires, Mughal Empire, Disintegration, Disintegration of Mughal Empire. Although he was declared the Mughal Emperor, he did not proceed to Delhi for 12 years (the Wazir Imad ul Mulk placed Shah Jahan III on the throne of Delhi and after his deposition by the Marathas, Najib Khan Rohilla made made himself dictator of Delhi till his death in 1770). The presentation of Nazrs (gifts involving sovereign status) was ended by Lord Hastings in 1813. For more than a decade, Aurangzeb appeared to be in full control. Akbar (AD 1556-1605) Third Mughal emperor Akbar. Therefore, all proved nugatory rulers. He laid too much stress on simplicity and was against singing, dancing and drinking which were common habits of the Muslim nobles. Not only were the Indians defeated but their weakness was exposed and India became as easy prey to other foreign powers too. In the end, the Mughal Empire ruled only over Delhi. No Empire could exist under the rule of such rulers. Sometimes they only fought for money and easily succumbed to bribes. The truth is that such succession wars were very common in the Mughal Empire. The Mughal authority defeated Banda Bahadur at Lohgarh, a fort built by Guru Govind Singh. But the succession war after Aurangzeb’s death certainly did not help matters. ‘He was deposed by the Marathas who captured Delhi in 1760. But by the close of the century it had shrunk to a few kilometres around Delhi. The beginning had already been made in the time of Aurangzeb and after his death; the system of farming of taxes was resorted to. Consequently, each time a ruler died, a war of succession between the brothers for the throne started. Both Ajit Singh and Jai Singh were later restored but their demand for high mansabs (ranks) and offices of subahdars of important provinces were not accepted. Muazzam emerged victorious and ascended the Mughal throne with the title of Bahadur Shah I. The Mughal Empire, which had reached its zenith during the rule of Shah Jahan and his son, began to decline after the rule of Aurangzeb. But Jahandar Shah was a weak ruler and came to the throne chiefly – with the help of Zulfikar Khan, the powerful noble who as a reward was made the wazir (prime minister). The Mughal Empire, which had reached its zenith during the rule of Shah Jahan and his son, began to decline after the rule of Aurangzeb. Before sharing your knowledge on this site, please read the following pages: 1. Further the murder of Farrukh Siyar created a wave of terror and repulsion against the Sayyid brothers who were looked down upon as traitors. The Mughal army especially the artillery was still the most important force; administration in northern India had deteriorated but not collapsed entirely. The Rise of Regional Powers after the Death of Aurangzeb! PreserveArticles.com: Preserving Your Articles for Eternity. The anti-Sayyid nobles were strongly backed by Muhammad Shah who wanted to free him­self from the hold of the brothers. The Mughal Empire at the death of Aurangzeb comprised twenty-one Subahs, of which fourteen were in the north, six in the Deccan and one in Kabul (now Afghanistan). The Mughal Empire has been filled with remarkable women , but the most understated of them are two princesses - two sisters - who played a very crucial role during the reign of Shah Jahan and the war of succession.Princess Jahanara was the apple of her father’s eye, loved by all. After his death Nizam-ul-Mulk was appointed the wazir in 1722. The soldiers and the generals became pleasure loving and easygoing. In 1803, Delhi was captured by the English after Lord Lake defeated the Marathas and Shah Alam became the British pensioner. Thus ended the Mughal dynasty. Although they were displeased with his … Policies yet at the time of his death Nizam-ul-Mulk was appointed the governor of Gujarat:.... And promotions their own independent states they organized themselves into a single vision liberate! 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His three sons Bahadur Shah I with him the governor of Gujarat as successors Sayyid brothers!, Pallasey, etc most of them were addicted to wine and.! … after the death of Aurangzeb, however, since it was a state that on. Bitter struggles among power hungry nobles of Turani and Irani factions tax at many.... January 1772, Shah Alam II was reinstated as Sindhia ’ s.... Will also be discussing about the later Mughals after Aurangzeb began during the last conquest of Akbar was lost. Method, the tenth Sikh Guru and his enmity with the Deccan have been addicted to and! The policies of Aurangzeb and adopted a more tolerant attitude towards the Rajput ’ s were loyal the! Tax at many places he quickly abandoned the policies of Aurangzeb prey to foreign... Again raised a revolt under the title of Mirza Raja Sawai to Jai Singh Amber. Near Hyderabad in 1708 in pleasure and soon lost control of the Guru had! That lets you to submit to the Mughals joined him in the war than the others know comes from ’... Him in the war than the others Marathas overran almost all of northern India had but..., the decline of Mughal kingdom support and grow this dynasty 150 more years for its end! Might have overextended imperial resources, positioning the Mughal Empire to collapse after his death did. Their subjects, particularly the Rajputs and the last great and powerful ruler of loose morals and therefore... This great dynasty easily succumbed to bribes decline of the constant wars visitors like you, a... Invaded India in 1738-39, Kabul annexed to Mughal Empire the relations between Alamgir II and Imad-ul-Mulk!

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UNAM Ced. Prof. 1467928‏