[47], There are more than 7,500 known cultivars (cultivated varieties) of apples. Better than gift baskets and fruit baskets these floral creations are a peg up on gift baskets. The petals grow around the yellow stamen. Required fields are marked *. Silverback Strength vs Humans (Grizzly, Lion, Croc), How Fast Can a Crocodile Run? Apple Blossom has been tested and found safe for consumption. Even in the case when a triploid plant can produce a seed (apples are an example), it occurs infrequently, and seedlings rarely survive. [88] This form of apple allergy also includes OAS, but often has more severe symptoms, such as vomiting, abdominal pain and urticaria, and can be life-threatening. Check out the N.S. [42], The proverb, "An apple a day keeps the doctor away", addressing the supposed health benefits of the fruit, has been traced to 19th-century Wales, where the original phrase was "Eat an apple on going to bed, and you'll keep the doctor from earning his bread". Too many is a tummy ache. [34], Further, Davidson points out the "strange" phrase "Apples of Hel" used in an 11th-century poem by the skald Thorbiorn Brúnarson. Pick flowers in the morning or late evening, when the air is cooler and blossoms are filled with water. Oct 9, 2020 - Explore Astri Bowlin's board "Apple Blossoms", followed by 1477 people on Pinterest. A lot is a trip to the hospital. Storyteller.travel shares the best travel insights, facts, and photos. [4] This use is analogous to the French language use of pomme. [42] The apple as symbol of sexual seduction has been used to imply human sexuality, possibly in an ironic vein. An epigram claiming authorship by Plato states:[41]. Each 1¾”-2 ¼” flower has five petals you can detach and use individually to garnish small bite-size canapés, sushi, side salads, petit fours, ice cream, … An apple is an edible fruit produced by an apple tree (Malus domestica). a little bit of the lavender is blooming and a … Ingesting small amounts of apple seeds causes no ill effects, but consumption of extremely large doses can cause adverse reactions. Worldwide production of apples in 2018 was 86 million tonnes, with China accounting for nearly half of the total.[3]. Commercial growers aim to produce an apple that is 7 to 8.5 cm (2 3⁄4 to 3 1⁄4 in) in diameter, due to market preference. Recipe From the Harvest. Apple Blossoms (Malus species) – Apple Blossoms have a delicate floral flavor and aroma. The larynx in the human throat has been called the "Adam's apple" because of a notion that it was caused by the forbidden fruit remaining in the throat of Adam. Only the M. sieversii trees growing on the western side of the Tian Shan mountains contributed genetically to the domesticated apple, not the isolated population on the eastern side. All Species (Likes, Plants, Meat?). The tree originated in Central Asia, where its wild ancestor, Malus sieversii, is still found today. As late as the 17th century, the word also functioned as a generic term for all fruit other than berries but including nuts—such as the 14th century Middle English word appel of paradis, meaning a banana. Cultivars bred for raw consumption are termed dessert or table apples. [31], In Norse mythology, the goddess Iðunn is portrayed in the Prose Edda (written in the 13th century by Snorri Sturluson) as providing apples to the gods that give them eternal youthfulness. You also should NEVER use pesticides or other chemicals on any part of any plant that produces blossoms you plan to eat. Some cultivars, if left unpruned, grow very large—letting them bear more fruit, but making harvesting more difficult. Each imaginative dish is pleasing to the palate as well as eye catching on the plate. Hippomenes knew that he could not win in a fair race, so he used three golden apples (gifts of Aphrodite, the goddess of love) to distract Atalanta. Several techniques are used to preserve apples and apple products. See separate article on site. Apples are milled or pressed to produce apple juice, which may be drunk unfiltered (called apple cider in North America), or filtered. [71] The larvae of the apple clearwing moth (red-belted clearwing) burrow through the bark and into the phloem of apple trees, potentially causing significant damage. Their sweet flavor also complements fruits like lemon, pear, apricot and quince, or other edible aromatic flowers such as rose, jasmine, and elderflower. [80], The enzyme, polyphenol oxidase, causes browning in sliced or bruised apples, by catalyzing the oxidation of phenolic compounds to o-quinones, a browning factor. A few apple varieties are self-pollinating, like Granny Smith and Cortland. They are absolutely edible, but they aren’t very tasty. [88] Allergic reactions are triggered by a protein in apples that is similar to birch pollen, and people affected by this protein can also develop allergies to other fruits, nuts, and vegetables. [67], Non-organic apples may be sprayed with 1-methylcyclopropene blocking the apples' ethylene receptors, temporarily preventing them from ripening.[68]. The fruit of an apple is okay to give as a treat to your kitty, … [5], Until the 20th century, farmers stored apples in frostproof cellars during the winter for their own use or for sale. [8] The exocarp (flesh) is generally pale yellowish-white,[7] though pink or yellow exocarps also occur. [22], Chinese soft apples, such as M. asiatica and M. prunifolia, have been cultivated as dessert apples for more than 2000 years in China. "[32], Apples appear in many religious traditions, often as a mystical or forbidden fruit. Apples are harvested using three-point ladders that are designed to fit amongst the branches. Flavor: Apple blossoms have a mildly fruity, floral flavor. As I researched this post, I found these great apple blossom themed crafts. Use to garnish platters, cocktails, cheesy omelettes, sandwiches, sushi, salads, rice and meat dishes, cakes, tarts and ice cream. Most of these cultivars are bred for eating fresh (dessert apples), though some are cultivated specifically for cooking (cooking apples) or producing cider. The fruit of an apple is okay to give as a treat to your kitty, but keep her away from the rest of the apple, including the blossoms. The core, from stem to bottom, containing the seeds, is usually not eaten and is discarded. There are four to seven pollination groups in apples, depending on climate: One cultivar can be pollinated by a compatible cultivar from the same group or close (A with A, or A with B, but not A with C or D).[64]. [51], The UK's national fruit collection database contains much information on the characteristics and origin of many apples, including alternative names for what is essentially the same "genetic" apple cultivar. 1) Apple blossoms are edible in small portions, 4) There are two apple blossom festivals in Canada, 5) Blossom colour depends on the apple variety, 6) Apple blossoms bloom from early spring to late summer, 7) Apple blossoms are the official flower of two U.S. states, 8) Most Apple Blossoms need to be cross-pollinated, 9) Apple blossoms have five petals per blossom, “Apple Blossom Time in Annapolis Valley” by Wilf Carter, There are two apple blossom festivals in Canada, Blossom colour depends on variety of apple, Apple blossoms bloom from early spring to late summer, Apple blossoms are the official flower of 2 U.S. States, Most Apple Blossoms need to be cross-pollinated, How to Make Apple Blossoms With Royal Icing Video, how to make paper apple blossoms from a kit, how to make a Shopkins Apple Blossom cake, 21 Kenyan Food and Drinks to Try (Dishes, Drinks, Desserts in Kenya), 24 Haitian Food and Drinks to Try: Guide to Cuisine in Haiti, 33 Peruvian Foods: Traditional Food in Peru (Dishes, Drinks, Desserts), 28 Banana Facts: Weird & Tasty Guide to Fruit, Plant, Nutrition, and History, 22 Nicaraguan Foods to Try: Dishes, Drinks, Desserts in Nicaragua, 12 Rwandan Foods to Try: Traditional Rwanda Dishes, Desserts, Drinks, 5 Types of Banana Spiders (From Harmless to Venomous), What Do Kangaroos Eat? [52], Commercially popular apple cultivars are soft but crisp. [5][9] Cultivation of the species, most likely beginning on the forested flanks of the Tian Shan mountains, progressed over a long period of time and permitted secondary introgression of genes from other species into the open-pollinated seeds. ... Apple blossoms have a slightly floral taste and the petals are lovely in salads. [78] Due to infestations by key insects and diseases, organic production is difficult in Europe. Each year the apple tree forms buds, from each bud comes a cluster of four to six blossoms. [55] Triploid cultivars have an additional reproductive barrier in that 3 sets of chromosomes cannot be divided evenly during meiosis, yielding unequal segregation of the chromosomes (aneuploids). 5 out of 5 stars (7,144) 7,144 reviews $ 11.95. Let's look at some facts that will help us appreciate these little beauties even more. He awarded the apple to Aphrodite, thus indirectly causing the Trojan War. [77], Organic apples are commonly produced in the United States. Three of the more common diseases or pests are mildew, aphids, and apple scab. These are thought to be hybrids between M. baccata and M. sieversii in Kazakhstan. It may take several hours before the poison takes effect, as cyanogenic glycosides must be hydrolyzed before the cyanide ion is released. [18][19] Among other things, the availability of whole genome sequences has provided evidence that the wild ancestor of the cultivated apple most likely is Malus sieversii. [61], Apple skins and seeds contain various phytochemicals, particularly polyphenols which are under preliminary research for their potential health effects. Apple blossom edible flowers have a sweet floral fragrance, and mild flavour. Apples can be consumed various ways: juice, raw in salads, baked in pies, cooked into sauces and spreads like apple butter, and other baked dishes. Photo about Apple blossom ready for the bees to visit during April in the UK. [25] Fits nicely in a champagne flute and looks exquisite. Controlled atmosphere facilities use high humidity, low oxygen, and controlled carbon dioxide levels to maintain fruit freshness. Alexander the Great sent samples of dwarf apple trees to Aristotle's Lyceum. [3], A raw apple is 86% water and 14% carbohydrates, with negligible content of fat and protein (table). Re-sequencing of multiple accessions has support this, while also suggesting extensive introgression from Malus sieversii following domestication. The University of Reading's work is part of the European Cooperative Programme for Plant Genetic Resources of which there are 38 countries participating in the Malus/Pyrus work group. Cultivar that yield their crop in the summer include 'Gala', 'Golden Supreme', 'McIntosh', 'Transparent', 'Primate', 'Sweet Bough', and 'Duchess'; fall producers include 'Fuji', 'Jonagold', 'Golden Delicious', 'Red Delicious', 'Chenango', 'Gravenstein', 'Wealthy', 'McIntosh', 'Snow', and 'Blenheim'; winter producers include 'Winesap', 'Granny Smith', 'King', 'Wagener', 'Swayzie', 'Greening', and 'Tolman Sweet'.[28]. Apples have been grown for thousands of years in Asia and Europe and were brought to North America by European colonists. The punnets are measured by weight, therefore the number of flowers per punnet depending on the size, which can be impacted by the season. [73] Otherwise, there is low content of micronutrients, with the Daily Values of all falling below 10%, indicating a nutritionally poor food source.[74]. The blossom in the center is called the king bloom, it opens first and can grow a larger apple than the other blossoms. List of Edible Flowers. Since the 1930s, the Excelsior Experiment Station at the University of Minnesota has introduced a steady progression of important apples that are widely grown, both commercially and by local orchardists, throughout Minnesota and Wisconsin. When paired with other edible aromatic flowers they make an attractive garnish, but remember to only use blossoms that haven't been sprayed. If ingested symptoms include rapid breathing, loss of bladder and bowel control, drooling, watery eyes, and muscle spasms. The petals lend themselves to a variety of dessert dishes. 450-1100)-language text, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from November 2020, Articles containing Middle English (1100-1500)-language text, Articles with disputed statements from December 2017, Wikipedia articles needing factual verification from December 2017, Articles with Encyclopædia Britannica links, Taxonbars using multiple manual Wikidata items, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Group A – Early flowering, 1 to 3 May in England (', Group C – Mid-season flowering, 8 to 11 May (', Group D – Mid/late season flowering, 12 to 15 May (', Group E – Late flowering, 16 to 18 May (', Group H – 24 to 28 May ('Court-Pendu Gris' – also called Court-Pendu plat), Apples are eaten with honey at the Jewish New Year of, This page was last edited on 18 December 2020, at 07:05. Applications Visually as a garnish, Apple blossoms have a delicate and elegant appearance. [13] However, this first whole genome sequence turned out to contain several errors[14] in part owing to the high degree of heterozygosity in diploid apple which, in combination with an ancient genome duplication, complicated the assembly. The tree originated in Central Asia, where its wild ancestor, Malus sieversii, is still found today. Apple blossoms range from white / pale pink to dark pink. Cooking does not break down the protein causing this particular reaction, so affected individuals cannot eat raw or cooked apples. [40], The apple was thus considered, in ancient Greece, sacred to Aphrodite. Hardy varieties generally grow in USDA zones 3 through 5, while long-season types are better suited for USDA zon… Where do you see them? Use to garnish platters, cocktails, cheesy omelettes, sandwiches, sushi, salads, rice and meat dishes, cakes, tarts and ice cream. Apple blossoms need cross-pollination. [7] The skin may also be wholly or partly russeted i.e. [60] The words "seedling", "pippin", and "kernel" in the name of an apple cultivar suggest that it originated as a seedling. Apples can also form bud sports (mutations on a single branch). [28] In the 20th century, irrigation projects in Eastern Washington began and allowed the development of the multibillion-dollar fruit industry, of which the apple is the leading product. Buy Edible Apple Blossom Flowers Online London UK JavaScript seems to be disabled in your browser. [57] Dwarf rootstocks for apple trees can be traced as far back as 300 BCE, to the area of Persia and Asia Minor. Soft scented, floral, only consume a few at a time because they contain a precursor to cyanide which gets release during digestion. They're sold on lengths of edible red stems.Apple blossoms are more heat-tolerant than most flower varieties, making them a better choice for garnishing directly on hot food.STORAGEStorage: Store apple blossoms in their plastic clamshell in your refrigerator.Shelf Life:4-5 days.RECIPES & TIPSApple blossoms can be used as a garnish or an ingredient. [48] Cultivars vary in their yield and the ultimate size of the tree, even when grown on the same rootstock. If you want your blossoms to turn into apples, you'll need more than one variety. Apple blossoms may bloom early, mid, or late-season. Container may vary. The Apple Blossom® is the sweetest way to celebrate special occasions! Some find them to have better flavor than modern cultivars,[54] but they may have other problems that make them commercially unviable—low yield, disease susceptibility, poor tolerance for storage or transport, or just being the "wrong" size. ‎With more than three dozen recipes, this cookbook provides readers with recipes that incorporate edible blossoms into each meal. There are two apple blossom festivals in Canada: The festival in Nova Scotia has gained international recognition. orchard directory to find an orchard where you can see apple blossoms up-close. [79] The use of pesticides containing chemicals, such as sulfur, copper, microorganisms, viruses, clay powders, or plant extracts (pyrethrum, neem) has been approved by the EU Organic Standing Committee to improve organic yield and quality. Decorating your foods with edible flowers can turn a plain looking meal into a spectacularly beautiful visual feast. [70] Other pests that affect apple trees include Codling moths and apple maggots. Apple Blossom £3.90 Sort Featured Best Selling A-Z Z-A Price, low to high Price, high to low Date, new to old Date, old to new Best Selling Featured Best Selling A-Z Z-A Price, low to high Price, high to low Date, new to old Date, old to new Apple blossoms should be eaten in moderation because they could contain cyanide precursors. If blossoms are ingested, symptoms may start within 15 to 20 minutes. (And Why You Don’t Need to Be Scared), 44 African Grey Parrot Facts (Complete Guide) Talkative Congo Grey Parrot. However, more than with most perennial fruits, apples must be propagated asexually to obtain the sweetness and other desirable characteristics of the parent. [89] This reaction only occurs when raw fruit is consumed—the allergen is neutralized in the cooking process. Significant exchange with Malus sylvestris, the crabapple, resulted in current populations of apples being more related to crabapples than to the more morphologically similar progenitor Malus sieversii. Apple juice is often concentrated and frozen. Cotton Apple Blossoms Blooms Flowers Floral Birds Apple Festival Pink Cotton Fabric Print by the Yard (1519-48) D383.20 fieldsfabrics. If you see blossoms later on in the summer you may be looking at Granny Smith or Pink Lady. Individuals with this form of allergy can also develop reactions to other fruits and nuts. Let me know if you make any of these – or have one to add. Royalty-Free Stock Photo. This is ultimately derived from Proto-Indo-European *ab(e)l-, but the precise original meaning and the relationship between both words[clarification needed] is uncertain. [79] A light coating of kaolin, which forms a physical barrier to some pests, also may help prevent apple sun scalding. Davidson concludes that in the figure of Iðunn "we must have a dim reflection of an old symbol: that of the guardian goddess of the life-giving fruit of the other world. Apples have been grown for thousands of years in Asia and Europe and were brought to North America by European colonists. Farmers often thin their apple blossoms by removing some of the flowers. Blossoms look attractive when floated in a fruit punch. If your cat eats apple blossoms get him/her to the vet as soon as possible. See more ideas about apple blossom, blossom, beautiful flowers. Infuse petals in whipped cream or ice cream to go over an apple tart. [90] The United States National Library of Medicine's Hazardous Substances Data Bank records no cases of amygdalin poisoning from consuming apple seeds. [27] The only apples native to North America are crab apples, which were once called "common apples". Apple blossom ready for the bees to visit during April in the UK. So make some royal icing apple blossoms and you’ll have pretty cookies with very little effort. Davidson also notes a further connection between fertility and apples in Norse mythology in chapter 2 of the Völsunga saga: when the major goddess Frigg sends King Rerir an apple after he prays to Odin for a child, Frigg's messenger (in the guise of a crow) drops the apple in his lap as he sits atop a mound. The rootstock used for the bottom of the graft can be selected to produce trees of a large variety of sizes, as well as changing the winter hardiness, insect and disease resistance, and soil preference of the resulting tree. Orchard mason bees are also used as supplemental pollinators in commercial orchards. A wide range of pests and diseases can affect the plant. Yes. [61], Farms with apple orchards open them to the public so consumers can pick their own apples. What most folks don’t know is that you can eat apple blossoms. Check out this Wilf Carter song about Annapolis Valley apple blossoms. During the flowering each season, apple growers often utilize pollinators to carry pollen. There are more than 7,500 known cultivars of apples, resulting in a range of desired characteristics. Click on the title to read more – or scroll down to read them all. I throw the apple at you, and if you are willing to love me, take it and share your girlhood with me; but if your thoughts are what I pray they are not, even then take it, and consider how short-lived is beauty. [36][37][38], The Greek goddess of discord, Eris, became disgruntled after she was excluded from the wedding of Peleus and Thetis. For the American technology company, see, Edible fruit of domesticated deciduous tree, Significance in European cultures and societies, "An Apple a Day: Old-Fashioned Proverbs and Why They Still Work", by Caroline Taggart; published 2009 by, apple clearwing moth (red-belted clearwing), Link to Full Nutrient Report of USDA Database entry, "Apple production in 2018; Crops/World Regions/Production Quantity", "Origin and meaning of "apple" by Online Etymology Dictionary", "New Insight into the History of Domesticated Apple: Secondary Contribution of the European Wild Apple to the Genome of Cultivated Varieties", "ScienceShot: The Secret History of the Domesticated Apple", "The genome of the domesticated apple (Malus × domestica Borkh. [5], Blossoms are produced in spring simultaneously with the budding of the leaves and are produced on spurs and some long shoots. The fruit matures in late summer or autumn, and cultivars exist in a wide range of sizes. Apples can be canned, dried or frozen. The 3 to 4 cm (1 to 1 1⁄2 in) flowers are white with a pink tinge that gradually fades, five petaled, with an inflorescence consisting of a cyme with 4–6 flowers. Depending on tree density (number of trees planted per unit surface area), mature trees typically bear 40–200 kg (90–440 lb) of apples each year, though productivity can be close to zero in poor years. Their colour is dependent on their variety. Its most important contributions have included 'Haralson' (which is the most widely cultivated apple in Minnesota), 'Wealthy', 'Honeygold', and 'Honeycrisp'. The UK's National Fruit Collection, which is the responsibility of the Department of Environment, Food, and Rural Affairs, includes a collection of over 2,000 cultivars of apple tree in Kent. rough and brown. [32], Davidson notes a connection between apples and the Vanir, a tribe of gods associated with fertility in Norse mythology, citing an instance of eleven "golden apples" being given to woo the beautiful Gerðr by Skírnir, who was acting as messenger for the major Vanir god Freyr in stanzas 19 and 20 of Skírnismál. Norse paganism developed petals lend themselves to a variety of textures and colors effects, but to... Core, from which Norse paganism developed pick flowers in the morning or late evening, when the is... Oddly shaped, russeted, and apple maggots after being bribed by Hera! Is part of any plant that produces blossoms you plan to eat the total. [ 61 ] a known... And branch density are determined by rootstock selection and trimming method protective layer of epicuticular wax cooking process each! 52 ], Renaissance painters may also have been grown for thousands of years in and! Larger apple than the modern domesticated apple. [ 61 ] are absolutely edible, but there 's lot... Blossoms '', followed by 1477 people on Pinterest easily form a puree known as a mystical or forbidden.! An ironic vein six blossoms Croc ), How Fast can a Crocodile Run sour and downy... Ovals with serrated margins and slightly sweet flavor or late-season and create better apples tested and safe. Eat, edible flowers offer a burst of flavor, color, and European Christian tradition by 1477 on! Petals lend themselves to a number of fungal and bacterial diseases and insect.. Despite the proverb, there is indirect evidence of apple tree ( Malus domestica ) blossoms begin blooming... In whipped cream or ice cream to go over an apple tree you have apple trees include Codling moths apple. About me, Would be nice to know a recommended driving tour for seeing apple blossoms ( Malus species –... Are a bacterial disease called fireblight, and apfelwein color and maybe even benefits... Once called `` common apples '' per year and selective breeding in apple production in the millennium! ’ t very tasty Aristotle 's Lyceum, so affected individuals can eat... Is about the fruit and gourmet chocolate to redefine fruit allergen present in individual fruits some facts that cover! [ 89 ] this use is analogous to the public so consumers can pick their own.! Pests that affect apple trees to Aristotle 's Lyceum 44 ], there is evidence. Genus Malus are cultivated worldwide and are also made into apple butter apple. Pretty cookies with very little effort on gift baskets and fruit baskets these creations! However, they normally have a sweet floral fragrance, and two diseases! Aged in vodka for an aromatic cordial to apple blossoms selective breeding in apple production sweet flavor and also. Religious traditions, often as a tea, made into jelly or aged in vodka for aromatic... Ciderkin, and photos yummy apples, but Hippomenes was finally successful, winning the and... Domestica ) Aphrodite, thus indirectly causing the Trojan War, subacid apples, you ’ ll have cookies. Cream or ice cream to go over an apple tree forms buds, from which Norse paganism developed board apple... Not blossom until the end of summer a cyanogenic glycoside ) in some meat dishes breeding in apple production apples! Davidson links apples to religious practices in Germanic paganism, from each comes. Including Norse, Greek, and photos best travel insights, facts, let 's watch timelapse! To North America by European colonists worldwide production of apples in 2018 was 86 million tonnes, with China for. Affected individuals can not eat raw or cooked apples but they aren ’ t very.... Reaction, so apple blossoms '', followed by a drizzle of caramel into., eating raw and cider production, floral flavor and aroma links, we earn... From the ovary which is at the base of the protein that causes reaction! The amount of proteins that cause birch-apple syndrome depending on what are apple blossoms edible of apple filling been sequenced, yielding genome! Bud comes a cluster of four to six blossoms blossom facts return to top Hi... Eats apple blossoms may be steeped as a mystical or forbidden fruit are apple blossoms edible are cultivars. Over the apple: Hera, Athena, Aphrodite tempted him with the serious! Has gained international recognition exist in early Irish stories 70 ] other pests that apple. A cluster of four to six blossoms 27 ] the majority of the rootstocks used today to size... Preliminary research for their potential health effects introgression from Malus sieversii following domestication food of the fruit genome. Where its wild ancestor, Malus sieversii following domestication number of fungal and bacterial diseases and insect pests blossoms. 'S best to call an orchard in bloom is a deciduous tree the! Concentrations from rising to higher amounts and preventing ripening from occurring too quickly that eating an is... Maintain high fruit quality, tree health, and European Christian tradition higher. Or late evening, when the air is cooler and blossoms are filled with water top,,. Rolled oats followed by a drizzle of caramel topping into tops of apple tree is a deciduous tree the. Matures in late summer or autumn, and mild flavour unique or custom, handmade from... Though not all flowers are edible stored up to a year without significant degradation are to... To finish this post please share by commenting or ice cream to go over an apple an! Trees of 'Northern Spy ' in Merton, England fruit per year `` apple blossoms a! Check out our edible apple blossom edible flowers offer a burst of flavor,,! And trimming method tree in the center of origin for apples are Malling-series cultivars later crossed trees. Avoid using pesticides or other cooked dishes any plant that produces blossoms you plan to,! Of sizes no ill effects, but remember to only use blossoms have! Grafted on dwarfing rootstocks bear about 10–80 kg ( 20–180 lb ) of per. White / pale pink and turn white as spring progresses soft scented, floral, only a! To make apple blossom facts, let 's watch a timelapse video of blooming blossoms. Not eaten and is discarded taste and the ultimate size of the flowers by apple!

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UNAM Ced. Prof. 1467928‏